The dominant ethnic groups of the Azawak are the Tuareg and Fulani people. Smaller populations of Arabs and Hausas also live in these vast plains. A large percent of Tuaregs and Arabs in the Azawak are pastoralist nomads that live in camps of approximately 50 to 150 members.
Due to economic pressure and dramatic livestock losses, some Tuaregs have abandoned their formally nomadic lifestyle and now live in villages ranging from 100 to 1000 individuals, and rely on seasonal small-scale agriculture and/or trade for survival. The pastoral Fulani generally live in camps of no more than one or two families, with extended family units interspersed every one or two miles.
Hausas are sedentary and live in small villages often ranging from 250 to 1000 members. Families range from approximately five to seven members.